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Thelazia callipaeda

...parasitize a wide range of ruminants, monkeys, and a variety of other mammals worldwide; adult worms enter mucosa and submucosa of pharynx, esophagus, and stomach of their hosts; accidental ingestion of infected insects (IH are beetles, cockroaches) occasionally results in human infections, which typically involve the mouth and pharynx, including lips, tongue gums, tonsils, but not the esophagus (diagnosis: characteristic eggs in feces); other aberrant infections in humans have been occasionally recorded from ascaridid nematodes such as Baylisascaris and Lagochilascaris minor (parasites of wild felines, canids, rodents, and didelphoids, opossum (latter species occur in Surinam and Trinidad); ingestion of their larvated eggs and hatched migrating larvae may cause skin creeping eruption and subcutaneous abscesses; spirurid worms, e.g., Thelazia callipaeda (occurring in the Far East and Europe), a common parasite of dogs, other canids, cat and rabbits, live under the nictitating membrane and in conjunctival sac of their definitive hosts; infected flies (IH) may infrequently place L3 larvae in the eye region of humans where larvae cause conjunctivitis, pain, excess lacrimation, and occasionally paralysis of the lower eyelid muscles, which may be associated with an ectropion and fibrotic scarring no drugs have been found to be albendazole 25 mg/kg b.w./d × 20d BAYLISASCARIASIS Baylisascaris procyonis (Baylisascaris started as soon as possible (up to 3d after sufficiently effective; drugs that might be tried include BZs (mebendazole, spp. of wild felines, carnivores, raccoon, possible infection) might prevent rodents, and didelphoids, e.g., opossum) clinical disease and is recommended in albendazole, thiabendazole, levamisole, or ivermectin); steroid therapy may be children with known exposure (e.g., larvated eggs, 3rd-stage larvae (L3 helpful in controlling exaggerate migrate through various organs, CNS, ingestion of raccoon stool or contaminated soil [Gavin PJ, Shulman inflammatory reactions, especially in eye and become arrested to become ST (2003), Pediatr Infect Dis: 22: 651] ) affected eye and CNS; ocular gradually phagocytized) baylisascariasis has been successfully treated using laser photocoagulation therapy to destroy the intraretinal larvae TOXOCARIASIS (VLM) humans (primarily children) acquire infection by ingestion of embryonated Toxocara eggs from soil; children frequently adopt the habit of dirt eating and where soil is heavily contaminated with Toxocara eggs (e.g., in soil around doorsteps, garden soil, playgrounds and sidewalks, rural settings such as farms) the ingestion of even moderate amounts of soil may result in intake of large numbers of infective eggs; the custom if giving young puppies to children as playmates, a special hazard may arise since it is the young puppy, which is preferentially infected with T. canis (clinical signs of VLM and OLM syndrome cf. general discussion ↑) VLM (TOXOCARIASIS) Toxocara there were contradictory reports *drug of choice: canis (common host: dog, cat) Toxocara albendazole (400 mg bid × 5d, concerning the use of cati (common host: dog, cat) [larvated or mebendazole 100–200 mg bid × 5d: diethylcarbamazine in treating VLM eggs (L2) in soil infective for man, (6 mg DEC/kg/d in 3 doses × 7–10d for adult/pediatric) diagnosis of VLM: ELISA (L3 antigen) adults and children: dose regimen is extraintestinal L3 migrating through various organs including CNS and eye has sufficient specificity (92%), and now obsolete); efficacy of DEC and thiabendazole has been considered sensitivity (78%) titer >1:32 (becomes arrested in tissues to be doubtful by some authors; patients may gradually phagocytised), disintegrated suspected of having VLM; OLM is larva induces formation of granulomata diagnosed on clinical criteria; treatment improve without treatment within 3 months after infection; careful diagnosis for OLM include surgery (e.g., causing serious clinical signs] is necessary in OLM; mistaken vitrectomy, i.e., partial removal of *optimum duration of BZs therapy is diagnosis may result (and on several not known (others would treat for 20d) vitreous body) occasions has resulted) in unnecessary enucleation of the eyeball; administration of glucocorticoids are useful in suppressing intense inflammatory reactions of the eye and may lead to improvement of serious symptoms, including relief from pain; anthelmintics (e.g., BZs) could be tried ANGIOSTRONGYLIASIS humans acquires infection by ingestion of raw or undercooked intermediate hosts (mollusks: slugs, crustaceans: freshwater prawns) containing infective 3rd-stage larvae; A. cantonensis occurring in Australia, Pacific Islands, Taiwan, Malaysia, the Far East, and India may be the cause of eosinophilic meningitis or meningoencephalitis (threadlike larvae may be found in subarachnoid space); dissemination of the disease in humans is due to one of the best intermediate hosts of A. cantonensis, the giant African land snail, Achatina fulica, which is a popular item of food in some countries; A. costaricensis is widespread in the American continent from the USA to northern Argentina, particularly high in Costa Rica (intermediate hosts are slugs); pathogenesis is attributed to degenerated third stage larvae causing hepatic lesions and thrombus formation destroying arterial walls; adult worms in mesenteric arteries or eggs in the intestinal wall (which fail to hatch in humans) may provoke local... [стр. 963 ⇒]

Parasites of the nervous system  Eyes Thelazia callipaeda Common name: Eye worm Predilection site: Eye, conjunctival sac and lacrimal duct Phylum: Nematoda Class: Secernentea Superfamily: Spiruroidea Description, gross: Small, thin, white worms 1.0–1.7  cm long; males are 7–11.5 mm and females 7–17 mm. Description, microscopic: In the male the left spicule is much longer than the right. In the female the vulva is in the oesophageal region. When laid the eggs contain a fully developed larva. [стр. 679 ⇒]

Thelazia californiensis Common name: Eye worm Predilection site: Eye, conjunctival sac and lacrimal duct Phylum: Nematoda Class: Secernentea Superfamily: Spiruroidea Description, gross: Small thin white worms 1.0–1.5 cm long. Description, microscopic: A mouth capsule is present and the cuticle has prominent striations at the anterior end. Final hosts: Dog, cat Intermediate hosts: Muscid flies Geographical distribution: North America All other details as for T. callipaeda. [стр. 680 ⇒]

Tetrameres fissispina 61, 680–1, 894 Tetrameres mohtedai 61, 681 Tetrameres pattersoni 61, 681 Tetrameridae 61 tetramisole 314 tetrathyridium 96 Tetrathyridium bailetti see Mesocestoides lineatus Tetrathyridium elongatum see Mesocestoides lineatus Tetratrichomonas 121–2 Tetratrichomonas anatis 121, 719 Tetratrichomonas anseris 121, 720 Tetratrichomonas buttreyi 121, 378, 581 Tetratrichomonas canistomae 121, 122, 599 Tetratrichomonas felistomae 121, 122, 599 Tetratrichomonas gallinarum 121, 122, 719 Tetratrichomonas microti 121, 122, 846–7 Tetratrichomonas ovis 121, 122, 474 Tetratrichomonas pavlovi 121, 122, 378–9 Tetratrichomonas tenax 853–4 Texas cattle fever tick see Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) annulatus Texas fever 398–9, 800 thaga see Trypanosoma brucei evansi Theileria 152–4 Theileria annae 153, 648 Theileria annulata 153–4, 350, 404, 800 Theileria buffeli see Theileria orientalis complex Theileria camelensis 153, 154, 783 Theileria cervi 153, 768 Theileria dromederi 783 Theileria equi 151, 153, 154, 550–1 Theileria felis see Cytauxzoon felis Theileria hirci 153, 154, 493–4 Theileria lestoquardi see Theileria hirci Theileria mutans see Theileria orientalis complex Theileria orientalis complex (T. mutans, T. buffeli, T. sergenti) 153, 154, 404–5, 800–1 Theileria ovis 153, 154, 493, 494 Theileria parva 153, 350, 402–3, 800, 962 Theileria parva lawrencei 403, 800 Theileria parva parva 403, 800 Theileria recondita 153, 154, 493 Theileria separata 153, 493 Theileria sergenti see Theileria orientalis complex Theileria tarandi see Theileria cervi Theileria taurotragi 153, 154, 405 Theileria velifera 153, 154, 405 Theileriidae 152–5 theileriosis benign 404–5 of small ruminants 494 bovine 402–5 camels 783 drug treatment 320, 403 equine 550–1 immune response 347 laboratory diagnosis 289–90 malignant, of small ruminants 493–4 Mediterranean 404, 800 sheep and goats 493–4 vaccines 350, 403 water buffalo 800–1 Thelazia 55, 57–8 Thelazia californiensis 58, 655 Thelazia callipaeda 58, 654–5, 874–5 Thelazia gulosa (alfortensis) 58, 410 Thelazia lacrymalis 58, 552–3 Thelazia leesi 58, 784 Thelazia rhodesi 58, 409–10, 784, 801 Thelazia skrjabini 58, 410 Thelazidae 57–8 thiabendazole 313–14 thiacetarsamide 317, 643 thin-necked bladder worm see Taenia hydatigena thiophanate 313–14 Thornix anatis see Capillaria anatis Thornix phasianina see Capillaria phasianina thorny-headed worms 73–4, 573, 619, 691–2 thread-necked worms 364–5, 449–51... [стр. 1027 ⇒]

Телязиоз. T h e l a z i o s i s (лат.), t h e l a z i a s i s (англ.). Гельминтоз глаза с доброкачественным течением. Возбудитель Thelazia callipaeda Raillietet Henry, 1910. Самец размером 10,3—14,3x0,37—0,45мм; самка — 12,24—18,307.- 0,408—0,459 мм. Яйца (размером 0,046—0,062x0,031 — 0,0465 мм) откладываются с сформированными личинками в слезную жидкость д е ф и н и т и в н ы х х о з я е в . П а р а з и т и р у ю т под конъюнктивой глаза у собак, волков, лисиц, уссурийских енотов. Описан у человека. Биологический цикл развития изучен в СССР Д. П. Козловым (1963). П р о м е ж у т о ч н ы й х о з я и н : муха Phortica variegata. Ползая у внутреннего угла глаза животного, муха заглатывает яйца вместе со слезной жидкостью. Весь цикл развития завершается за 50 дней. К л и н и ч е с к и е п р о я в л е н и я : усиленное слезотечение, конъюнктивит, чувство инородного тела в глазу. Д и а г н о з ставится при обнаружении телязий. Л е ч е н и е : удаление гельминтов промыванием глаза 2 % раствором новокаина. Телязий встречаются у собак в Индии, Китае и в СССР на Дальнем Востоке. Описано несколько случаев телязиоза глаза у людей в Китае, на Корейском п-ове, в Индии, Испании. В СССР впервые зарегистрирован случай телязиоза человека на Дальнем Востоке в районе реки Хор (Д. П. Козлов, 1960). Т. californiensis Price, 1930. Встречается в Северной Америке у собак. Самец длиной 7,7—12,72 мм; самка — 12,85—18,80 мм. Т. californiensis описана в США и у человека (Kofoid, Williams, 1935; Hosford и др., 1942; Friedmann, 1949; Lee, Parmelee, 1958; по Н. И. Крастину, 1957). СЕМЕЙСТВО CAPILLARIIDAE NEVEU-LEMAIRE, 1936 2 Томинксоз. T h o m i n x o s i s (лат.) Тяжелое заболевание дыхательных путей с длительным течением. Возбудитель — Thominx aerophilus (Creplin, 1939) Skrjabin et Schikhobalowa, 1954. Впервые заболевание у человека описано К. И. Скрябиным в 1939 г. (по К. И. Скрябину и др., 1957). Томинксы — нитевидные нематоды светло-серого, иногда розоватого цвета с более тонким головным концом (рис. 182, 183). Самец размером 15—18x0,06—0,07 мм. Самка размером 18—20x0,096—0,105 мм. Яйца (рис. 149, 10) бледно-серые бочонковидной формы, слегка асимметричные, с пробочками на обоих полюсах; оболочка покрыта сложным узорчатым рисунком (размер яиц 0,062—0,077x0,033—0,037 мм). Д е ф и н и т и в н ы е х о з я е в а : собака, кошка, волк, лиса, песец, соболь, куница, барсук, норка, еж; зарегистрирован у человека; паразитирует на слизистой оболочке трахеи, носовых полостей, в легких. Цикл развития изучен в СССР А. М. Боровковой (1947). Установлено наличие п р о м е ж у т о ч н ы х хоз я е в — дождевых червей. В теле животных личинки совершают лимфогематогенную миграцию; полное развитие до половозрелой стадии завершается за 28—29 дней. Срок жизни паразита — около 1 года. К л и н и ч е с к и е п р о я в л е н и я : острый бронхит, иногда осложненный бронхопневмонией. В первые дни — сильный сухой лающий кашель и повышение температуры до 38—39 е . В дальнейшем — выделение большого количества пенистой слизисто-гнойной мокроты с эозинофилами, изредка с прожилками крови. Приступы мучительного кашля повторяются несколько раз в сутки, чаще 1 г... [стр. 233 ⇒]

Изобретение относится к области ветеринарии и может быть использовано для лечения крупного рогатого скота, свиней, лошадей и собак от телязиозов, вызванных нематодами из подотряда Spirurata, семейства Thelaziidae (у крупного рогатого скота - Thelazia gulosa, Th. skrjabini, Th. rhodesi, Th. petrowi Th. ivaschkini, у лошадей - Th. lacrymalis, у свиней - Th. erschovi, у собак - Th. callipaeda). [стр. 1 ⇒]